skylyn and Cheyanne

Prokaryote Cell


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Photo by:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5a/Average_prokaryote_cell-_en.svg

This is a Prokaryotic cell because as shown in the picture above the nucleus is not present. This is a common trait found only in the Prokaryotic Cells. This cell's shape is also a very round shape which is another common trait for Prokaryotic Cells.




Eukaryote Cell


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This is a picture of the Eukaryote Cell. The parts that are drawn and labeled in the picture of the cell are the most important parts of the cell.
The Eukaryote cell and the Prokaryote cell, shown above the Eukaryote, differ from the inside parts.


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Photo by:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ostreococcus_RCC143.jpg

This is a Eukaryotic Cell because the Nucleus of the cell is clearly present, and Nuclei are not found in the cells of Prokaryotic Cells.
The Different organelles such as the Cell Wall, Cell Membrane, Mitochondria, and Ribosomes are also clearly present.

Compare and Contrast

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Final Question

Another question that we still have about cells is, "Can a Prokaryote cell ever form into a Eukaryote cell?"
The answer to the question is, no a Prokaryote cell can never become a Eukaryote cell. The reason that this is the answer to the question is because once a cell is a certain type, for example a plant cell is only a plant cell, it can not become an animal cell. This is the same thing with an animal cell, it cannot become a plant cell. Once it becomes a plant or animal cell it remains and plant or animal cell. It can not and will not change.

Onion Cell


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The diameter of field of high power view of the onion cell without salt concentration is 1,500 microns.

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The diameter of field of high power view for the onion cell with the salt solution is 1,500 microns.

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Elodea Cell


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The diameter of field of high power view for the Elodea with no salt is 3,750 microns.

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The diameter of field of high power for the Elodea with salt is 4,500 microns.

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Cheek Cell


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Cheek Cell Size is 2000 microns


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Cell Inquiry Lab

For the cell inquiry lab, we established that fruits and vegetables do have cells. They have cells because they are living organisms and need a nucleus, which would be like a brain for them. They are a plant, which means their cells are Eukaryotic and have a nucleus. They grow and need nutrients, therefore they have cells. For the lab we chose a piece of celery, which is a vegetable, to look at. For the materials we used the celery, methylene blue, slide, cover slide, microscope and the moti-cam. The procedure we went through was first we got the celery and peeled a little piece of it off. We put it on the slide and used two drops of methylene blue on it. We then added the cover slide on top of the celery piece. Once the slide was prepared, we placed it under the microscope and looked at it. We found cells and observed them. After we looked at the cells we took pictures with the moti-cam to expose the celery cells.
We know that these cells are cells because from previous labs when we observed different plant cells, and when we determined that the fruits and vegetables were plants we compared the different organelles and cell structures. After comparing the cells we were able to determine that the cells we observed were actually cells.

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This picture shows the multiple cells of the celery skin that we chose. The labels are of different parts of a cell.
The size of the cells are 2500 microns.

Cell Size Lab


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The little block on the left is the 1cmx1cm, then the 2cmx2cm, then to the farthest right is the 3cmx3cm. This shows that the two smallest blocks are all covered in the purple, as opposed to the biggest block, which was too large for the sodium hydroxide to get through.

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This picture is of the agar cube before we cut it into three pieces.

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1. Compare and contrast the three cubes after they were sliced in half.
The 1cmx1cm and the 2cmx2cm were pretty much the same. Both had the color all through it. The difference between the three was that the 3cmx3cm block had a white middle. The purple color did not make it all the way through the middle of the block.

2. Which "cell" seemed to be most and least efficient at getting outside substances into the cell? Explain.
The cell that seemed the most efficient at getting outside substances into the cell was the little one which was 1cmx1cm. It was the most efficient because it was small which made it easier for the substance to get through the middle to the other side in the time of 10 minutes that it had. The cell that seemed to be the least efficient would of been the biggest one which was 3cmx3cm. The reason this one was the least efficient was because it had more volume and area for the substances to go through. It would of needed more time to soak in the liquid for it to get to the middle.

3. Which of your calculations seems to explain what you observed in your cell models? Why do you think so?
We believe that our calculation of surface area to volume ration explains why the rate of diffusion of the sodium hydroxide was based on the fact that as the cube gets bigger there is also more volume and surface area it has to cover. We think this explains the lab.

4. Speculate on a relationship between cell size and efficiency. Your statement should resemble a hypothesis.
Our hypothesis of the cell size and efficiency relationship is that the same depth was taken but the bigger the cube the more that the cube needed to soak in the sodium hydroxide. If the cubes had soaked longer then more of the larger cube would have been soaked. The two smaller cubes were soaked through and through because they were much smaller that the 3cmx3cmx3cm cube.

Cell Transport


Glossary:

Diffusion- When molecules from an area of high concentrations move to an area of low concentration until both become the same.
Osmosis- Big flows of water through a semi permiable membrane into another component containing solutes at a higher concentration.
Hypotonic- It is like a hypertonic but contains less dissolved salt than cellular contents.
Hypertonic- It is a solution containing more solute than solvent.
Isotonic- When salts and waters are equally balanced inside and outside the cell.
Solute- It is used to dissolve stuff in the cell.
Solvent- Could be a liquid or a gas that breaks down or dissolves a solid, liquid or gas solute. It then becomes a solution.
Selectively Permeable- A membrane which lets only certain materials in it.
Water Potential- Potential energy of water relative to pure free water in reference conditions.
Concentration Gradient- A change that occurs gradually of colutes in a solution as a function of distance.
Plasmolysis- Contraction of the protoplasm away from the cell wall in a plant or animal cell which is caused by loss of water in osmosis.
Turgor- The tension produced by fluid tension in cells.
Active Transport- This is movement molecules or ions across a cellular membrane and goes from a low to a high concentration.
Facilitated Diffusion- Happens in a cell, and transports substances, by a protein carrier across the membrane.

Exercise 1


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This is a picture of the iodine solution without the sugar, starch saltwater solution.

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This is a picture of the bag with the salt, starch, and sugar solution in it, or in other words a picture of the cell.

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This is a picture of the iodine solution with the sugar, starch, and saltwater solution in it. This picture was taken about 20 minutes after the "cell" has been soaking in it.
we chose to do exercise 1, and in this exercise we took a beaker of iodine solution and submerged a dialysis bag filled with a salt water, starch, and sugar solution into the iodine. After 20 minutes in the iodine the bag(Cell) turned a dark purple or black. This exercise shows diffusion in a hypertonic solution.



Experiment C
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This is a picture of the two beakers with a piece of potato in it. The one on the left hand side, which is the smaller one has just pure water. The one on the right hand side, which is the larger one is water with salt in it.

In this experiment we took two equal size potatoe slices and put one slice in a beaker of pure tap water, and put the other slice of potato in a beaker of salt water solution. They both soaked for 30 minutes then when taken out the potato that sat in the salt water solution had much more flexibility and turgur than the potato in the tap water.

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in this lab we took a solution of sodium hydroxide and put in the dialysis bag, then submerged it in a sodium hyroxide solution as well. The beginning weight of the bag was 44.5 miligrams. The after weight was 47.8 miligrams. This shows that the weight of the bag increased due to the osmosis reaction.

Questions;
1. Compare and contrast diffusion and osmosis. You are responsible for discussing at least 3 similarities and or differences.
The differences of the osmosis and diffusion is that osmosis the movement of water which is clearly shown in experiment B. This is when a high concentration of salt is higher than another area so the water flows through the premeable membrane into the cells and expaned them. Diffusion is when molecules from an area of high concentration move to an area of low concentration until both areas are equal in an isotonic solution. This process is clearly shown in exercise 1 when the starch, sugar, and saltwater solution turned a brownish black and slowly spread throughout the dialysis bag. Something that these two processes have in common are that they both involve the movement of a solution or molecule to another area of concentration to help balance that area out.
2. Why are diffusion and osmosis considered to be passive processes?
Diffusion and osmosis are considered passive transport because they molecules when going to another area of concentration they do not have a chemical substance reacted to them exerting a force on them. These molecules move without energy.
3. Compare and contrast passive cell transport with active cell transport. You are responsible for discussing at least 3 similarities and/or differences.
Active Transport- is when the movement of molecules from a low concentration across a permeable membrane into a high concentration. This involves a forced chemical energy to promote the movement unlike passive transport. Passive transport is a transport of molecules without energy like diffusion and osmosis. Some similarities that active and passive transport have in common are that they both consist of a movement of molecules to another area. Passive transport is when the movement of the molecules is like a gradual float of the molecules throughout the area of cells instead of the force being acted on it.
4. What question do you still have about cell transport? Do research or design and run an experiment to gather data to answer your question. Write a paragraph or make an outline of what you did and what you discovered. Remember to cite your sources.
Q:A question that we still have about cell transport is if a passive transport process like osmosis can ever be considered an active transport process?
A: No, when osmosis is occurring in an area of water molecules energy is released from the cells to transfer the water into the area required to even out. This osmosis process will always remain an passive transport process due to the energy released.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passive_transport
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osmosis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Active_transport

Biomolecule Lab


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The tube on the left is a tube with canelini bean and cold hydrogen peroxide. The tube on the right is of canelini bean and normal hydrogen peroxide. Neither of theses tubes had any reaction to the peroxide solutions, therefore they do not have catalase.

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This tube is of canilini bean solution with a mixture of hot hydrogen peroxide added to it. There was no reaction to the hydrogen peroxide and the canilini bean.


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The tube on the left is the onion with the warm hydrogen peroxide. It had a little bit of reaction and got bubbles. The middle one is the onion with the room temperature peroxide. It had the most reaction out of the three tubes, but still not very much. The one on the right it the onion with the cold peroxide. It had the least amount of reaction. This gave us the conclusion that they do not have a very large amount of canalase.

Catalase Activity



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This picture is of the onion in the test tube.

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This is a picture of the onion mixed with the biuret. We came to the conclusion that the onion has no protein in it.

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This is a picture of the onion mixed with the Benedic and after being boiled for three minutes. We came to the conclusion that the onion does have simple sugar in it.


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This is the picture of the onion with the benedic in it, after it was sitting out for a while.

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This is a picture of the onion mixed with the iodine. We came to the conclusion that the onion has no starch in it.

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This picture is of a canilini bean after being boiled for 3 minutes with a benedict solution. This test was to see if there was sugar present in the canilini, and there was no reaction to the canilini solution.
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This pictures shows a canilini bean solution with iodine added. This test was to determine if the canilini bean had starch in its solution. This test determined that the test was positive, the canilini bean did have starch.

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This picture shows a canilini bean solution that had biuret solution added to it. This test was to show if there was any protein to the canilini bean. This test came up positive for protein.

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This is a picture of the canilini bean with a sudan 5 mixture. This test was to prove that the bean had fats and oils in its compound. This test also came out positive for the canilini bean.


Catalase Results Chart


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This is the result of some of the reaction that the food had to the catalase. The pink bars are for warm hydrogen peroxide. The blue bars are for the food with cold hydrogen peroxide. The green bars are for the food that was mixed with hydrogen peroxide that was room temperature. The numbers on the left hand side represent the reaction number. The food from left to right are liver, ground beef, avacado, milk, banana, onion and cannellini beans.

A conclusion that we made was that all the food acted differently when the peroxide was added. Some of the same types of food acted differently, not every test on the same food turned out to have the same result. For example, sometimes when the ground beef was tested, it had different results. One time when each kind of peroxide was added it reacted the same. All three times its reaction number was 1. When it was tested a different time, none of the peroxides gave it 1 as its reaction number. It had all higher numbers. So depending on the number of drops of peroxide that are added, the reaction number will be different. Every food also had a different way of reacting. Some changed colors, some bubbled and some didn't do anything. Another conclusion is the temperature of the peroxide. There was a different reaction to each of the samples with the different temperatures of the peroxide. It seems as if the warm peroxide had more of a reaction in each of the foods.

Chromotography Lab

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Photo by Cheyanne
This morter container is a cup that we used to mix the leaf, acetone, and sand to make the leaf mixture.

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Photo by cheyanne
This is a white strip of filter paper that we used to add the drop of the leaf mixture and measure the length of the different pigment colors.

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Photo by cheyanne
This glass test tube is what held the Ethyol at the bottom and the filter paper with the green leaf dot. The ethynol just touched the bottom of the filter paper

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photo by cheyanne
This is the measurements of the pigment colors on the filter paper next to the ruler. These measurements were taken in centimeters.


Step 1: Ask A Question?
How many pigments do plants have, and which ones weight the most?
Step 2: Do research
As of our research we know that every chlorophyll in the chloroplasts has pigments in them and with the process of the electromagnetic spectrum. The pigment that weights the most will the first color to appear, and the lightest pigment will be toward the top.
Step 3:Construct a Hypothesis?
We think that each plants set of chlorophyll has only one pigment that is green. This pigment gives the plant its color.
Step 4: Test With An Experiment
For our lab for Chromatography, Cheyanne and I were trying to find all of the pigments in the leaf as our goal. To start the process, we took a leaf and ripped it apart into very small pieces. We didn't use the whole leaf, only about 3/4 of it. We put the pieces of leaf into the mortar, a small ceramic bow. To crush the leaf, we put a dropper of acetone and a pinch of sand into the mortar and used the pastal to mix, crush and rip apart the leaf. After the chlorophyll of the leaf dyed the acetone green, the leaf crushing was complete. We god a test strip and put a dot of the chlorophyll with acetone on it with a dropper. The test strip then went into a glass container with some ethanol in the bottom of it. After about 15 minutes, you could clearly see that the pigments had separated from each other on the paper. The reaction showed that our leaf had two pigments. One green pigment, which was the heaviest color pigment, and one yellow pigment. The yellow pigment migrated 2.4 centimeters, the solvent migrated 7.4 centimeters, which equals. 324cm, which is the reference front. The green pigment migrated .7 centimeters and the solvent migrated 7.4 centimeters. Whenever we did the equation, we came to find that the reference front equals .094.
Step 5: Analyze Conclusion- Is it True or False?
After performing the Experiment we can conclude that every plant has at least two pigments. Depending on the depth of the colors and what all colors are present on the leaf will determine the number of pigments present.
Step 6: Report Results
Our results of our experiment led to our plant having two pigments. The first pigment, which had the heaviest weight, was the green pigment. The pigment that had the highest Rf reading was the yellow pigment, because it migrated the farthest during the test.


The main equation is RF=Distance pigment migrated/Distance solvent migrated
Yellow equation- RF=2.4cm/7.4cm= .324cm
Green equation- RF=.7cm/7.4cm= .094cm

Some of the different Rf reading from other groups are:
Jenna Roach and Lauren McGarvy:
Yellow-1
Orange-0.6
Green-0.37

Jenna Snyder and Marcus Bush:
Green-.5625
Light Green-0.75
Yellow-1

Sources For Chromotography Lab
http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/labbench/lab4/intro.html
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookPS.html





Sources,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_(biology)
http://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/prokaryotic_cells.html
http://www.cod.edu/PEOPLE/FACULTY/FANCHER/ProkEuk.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eukaryote
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prokaryotic_Cells
http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6443E..28S
http://www.biology.arizona.edu/Cell_BIO/activities/cell_cycle/cell_cycle.html
http://science.exeter.edu/jekstrom/web/CELLS/Elodea/Elodea.html