Platyhelminthes

Platyhelminthes- flatworm, Greek "platy": flat, "helminth": worm

1. Transport(external and internal)
The flatworms (Turbellaria, Monogenea) are the only Platyhelminthes that are able to travel outside of a host. Monogeneas use an inch-like movement to move around when they are not inside a host. They can swim through fresh or marine water or on moist soil. All the others have to be connected to the host in order to transport. The liver fluke (Trematoda, Monogenea) lives in snails and is passed to fish. When humans eat uncooked fish they ingest the fluke. They have a sucker around their mouth that lets them cling to the bodies organs. Usually they go to the heart, kidney, or gall bladder. The tapeworms (Cestoda) and flatworms are ingested when humans eat uncooked pork or beef. Once the tapeworms enter the body system they travel through the digestive track to get to the intestine. http://www.csus.edu/indiv/R/reihmanm/platyhelmintes_and_nematoda.htm

2. Nutrition
Most Platyhelminthes are parasitic, except the Turbellarians. Monogeneas, Trematodas, and Cestodas get their energy from the nutrients from their hosts. When they attach to an organ they absorb the nutrients from the area directly. The Turbellarians get their nutrition from eating the meat of mollusks and other worms, they are ones that are carnivorous. http://www.personal.psu.edu/law5001/energy.htm

3. Reproduction
The Cestodas, Monogeneas, and Trematodas all produce both eggs and sperm. When they mate they exchange sperm cells and both become fertilized. They usually never fertilize their own eggs. Turbellarians reproduce asexually, they separate in two and both halves regenerate into organisms. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flatworm

4. Responses to stimuli
The Cestodas have limited sensory abilities since they are parasites. As adults they have no sensory organs. Turbellarians have many organs that help them sense environmental stimuli. They use their hair and eyes to sense. Turbellarians and Monogeneas have paired sense organs in the head region including the eyes. The organs are attached to their brain.
http://www.eoearth.org/article/Platyhelminthes
http://www.pbs.org/kcet/shapeoflife/animals/platyhelminthes.html

5. Adaptation
All classes of the Platyhelminthes adapt very easily since they are always moving from place to place. Platyhelminthes are almost everywhere; they live in fresh and marine waters and inside humans and animals. Parasite Platyhelminthes constantly are changing habits as they go through their life cycles and switch hosts.
http://www.earthlife.net/inverts/platyhelminthes.html


6. Respiration
Turbellarians, Cestodas, Trematodas, and Monogeneas all have extracellular body fluids that pass through their bodies to help distribute gases, waste, and nutrients.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flatworm


7. Regulation
Platyhelminthes regulate their body temperature by keeping the extracellular fluids running through their body. Most animals regulate their body temperatures by the circulatory system, but Platyhelminthes have no circulatory system. Platyhelminthes take in oxygen, but they actually have no circulatory system. They have a gastrovascular cavity (distributes nutrients through the body) that has one opening.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circulatory_system
http://www.mcwdn.org/Animals/Flatworm.html

8. General structure/aspects of body form
Turbellarians have cilia and flat bodies. Cestodas and Trematodas have a think cuticle that covers the body; they also have flat bodies. Monogenea is a flatworm that contains hooks, and a haptor. All of the Platyhelminthes classes have three cell layers.
http://74.6.239.67/search/cache?ei=UTF-8&p=general+characteristics+of+cestoda&fr=yfp-t-501-s&rs=0&u=www.svusd.k12.ca.us/schools/lhhs/mccormacks/apbiowebpage/Notes/Animals/AP%2520worm%2520notes.pdf&w=general+characteristics+cestoda&d=boh68kLURidi&icp=1&.intl=us
http://www.answers.com/topic/monogenea

9. Type of symmetry
Turbellarians have bilateral symmetry (a mirrored image), along with Cestodas, Monogeneas, and Trematodas.
http://animals.jrank.org/pages/1506/Turbellarians-Turbellaria-PHYSICAL-CHARACTERISTICS.html
http://74.6.239.67/search/cache?ei=UTF-8&p=general+characteristics+of+cestoda&fr=yfp-t-501s&rs=0&u=www.svusd.k12.ca.us/schools/lhhs/mccormacks/apbiowebpage/Notes/Animals

10. Place in food chain
The Platyhelminthes are categorized into two groups, Schistosomiasomes and Non-Schistosomiasomes. The Schistosomiasomes are parasitic, they make their way into the body of another organism and feed directly from their blood vessels. Non-Schistosomiasomes are also parasitic, but they never directly target a host to feed off of, they usually are ingested into cows or pigs and then when humans eat beef, pork, etc. the Platyhelminthes are moved into their body.
http://www.earthlife.net/inverts/digenea.html

11. Background of the group - what they have in common, etc. Include interesting information.
The Platyhelminthes have been traced back thousands of years, scientists found fossilized eggs in the dried remains of an extinct ground sloth. Almost all platyhelminthes are parasitic, some directly pick their target and other are ingested by accident. None of the platyhelminthes have an anus, so they have one hole where they intake and excrete waste. Flatworms are thought by some scientists to be somehow connected with mollusks and earthworms.

12. Other organisms found in that group - include the most common organisms people would recognize (plus others)
Organisms found in this group are flatworms, ringworms, flukes, tapeworms, bladderworms.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flatworm

13. What "oddball" exists in that group that does not seem to fit in? Why is it classified here?
Turbellarians don't seem to fit in the Platyhelminthes phylum because they are the one class that does not contain parasites. Turbellarians are also detritivores (they feed off dead organisms and small organisms) or carnivorous, and free living. They are classified as Platyhelminthes because it is similar in size to the other Platyhelminthes and they have a lot of characteristics that are alike.
http://www.chebucto.ns.ca/ccn/info/Science/SWCS/ZOOBENTH/BENTHOS/xxvii.html

14. Where it is found in the world - Add a dot to the world map and use as an image (You can use: http://www.zeemaps.com/) or google maps
Platyhelminthes are found in the oceans and in fresh waters. They can also be found in moist soil. Platyhelminthes are found all over the world in different countries.
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/platyhelminthes/platyhelminthes.html
http://www.innvista.com/health/microbes/parasite/cestode.htm

15. Additional facts
Platyhelminthes have a pharyngeal opening. This opening allows them to bring food in and excrete waste. The free living Platyhelminthes are very active and consume energy while they do it. They are a paper thin structure and they do not have a full digestive system, it only consists of a mouth.
http://web1.d25.k12.id.us/home/staff/rudeer/abtplatyhelminthes4th.html
http://web1.d25.k12.id.us/home/staff/rudeer/abtplatyhelminthes4th.html

Mollusca (Cephalopoda)


1. Transport(external and internal)
The squid (Cephalopoda) transports itself by sucking water into its siphon, which is located in its mantle cavity. The water is then shot out in a hard jet stream. The squid also uses his tentacles to change directions and to drift slowly. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Squid

2. Nutrition
The cephalopodas have a complex organ system that starts off with the intake going into the stomach, then it moves down into the caecum to be digested. The caecum is a long, white organ that is located next to the testes (in males) or ovaries (in females). After being digested in the caecum it travels to the liver to absorb the nutrients. The excess waste is then excreted through the rectum. Also, some of the waste produced during digestion moves into the ink sac. The squid is able to use the ink sac to spray out an ink-like mixture at short notice to confuse a predator. A squid diet mostly consists of deep sea fish and other organisms form the deep.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Squid

3. Reproduction
Cephalopodas reproduce asexually. The male squid fertilizes the sperm cells into the female egg cells by way of a hole in one of its tentacles. The female receives the sperm from a padded opening under her beak. The female has a special gland called the nidamental gland, which produces food and eggshells for the fetal squids.
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_do_squid_reproduce
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Squid

4. Responses to stimuli
The cephalopodas have a few ways of responding to stimuli. They have eyes for which they see what is going to come in contact with them, they also have tentacles that they use to sense and feel what’s going on around them. Whenever the cephalopodas feel they are in danger they have an ink sac that they can spray into the predators face.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Squid

5. Adaptation
Squids have numerous adaptations that enable it to function under the conditions that it lives under. They use their siphon organ to absorb water and push it back out and move more quickly with that jet propulsion. Another adaptation is the ink sac that squirts ink into predator’s faces when the squid feels it is in danger. The squids beak and tentacles help it to eat, the extra long tentacles have suction cups on them that help to grab prey and its sharp, hard beak aids in breaking open shelled animals.
http://www.nhptv.org/NATUREWORKS/nwep6f.htm

6. Respiration
The squid breathes through gills that are located on its side.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Squid

7. Regulation (how it maintains homeostasis)
The cephalopodas regulate themselves by having two hearts that pump blood to the gill to make breathing possible, and one heart that pumps blood everywhere else.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Squid

8. General structure/aspects of body form
Cephalopodas (Squid) are stuctured with a merged head and foot. They also have tentacles and arms that surround their heads. All Cephalopodas have arms, but not all of them have tentacles. Cephalopodas also have a horny beak that is covered by the buccal cavity. Their eyes are very large and complex for an invertebrate. Cephalopodas have an unique feature, and that is that they can change their body color. They can do this by their pigment-filled bags.
http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cephalopoda.html
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/taxa/inverts/mollusca/cephalopoda.php

9. Type of symmetry
Cephalopodas all have bilateral symmetry.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cephalopod

10. Place in food chain
The Cephalopodas mainly eat crabs and fish. They are not often eaten by anything because of their tentacles and the fact that they know how to hide themselves very well so that they can't be seen. They are usually eaten only by bigger marine organisms such as whales.
http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/Ce-Cr/Cephalopods.html
http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Squid

11. Background of the group - what they have in common, etc. Include interesting information.
Cephalopodas are the most intelligent of all invertebrates. Their foot is attached to their head, and they all contain a hyponome which allows them to move. Most of them have a chambered shell. The Cephalopodas use their tongues to draw food to their mouth. Also they have two hearts that pump blue blood throughout their body.
http://www.angelfire.com/mo2/animals1/cephalopod/cephalopod.html

12. Other organisms found in that group - include the most common organisms people would recognize (plus others)
The Cephalopod class contains Squid and other organisms such as, octopuses, nautiluses, and cuttlefish. Snails and slugs are closely linked to the Cephalopodas.
http://www.thecephalopodpage.org/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mollusca

13. What "oddball" exists in that group that does not seem to fit in? Why is it classified here?
Nautiluses don't really seem to fit in that group becaust they have up to 90 tentacles but no suckers like the rest of the Cephalopods. Cephalopodas are fairly large, for example, the giant squid. Nautiluses are not very big at all, and they don't have good vision like the other Cephalopods. They are classified in this class because they have similar characteristics.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nautilus
http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761554663/Nautilus_(mollusk).html

14. Where it is found in the world - Find areas of the world where they live. You will be making a google earth layer. Keep track of the places they are found as you will be adding placemarks and using video and pictures along with an abstract.
Cephalopods are found in all the worlds oceans, from the tropic areas to the poles. Some live in the warm water and others live in the deep, freezing water. All Cephalopodas are marine and they stay away from the top of the water surface and shallow water.
http://www.tonmo.com/science/public/deepseacephs.php
http://www.thecephalopodpage.org/

15. Additional facts
The largest invertebrate is the giant squid which is classified in the Cephalopoda class. Their vision is able to distinguish different shapes and objects, and it is very possible that they have color vision. An octopus's eye is actually more efficient than our own eye. The Cephalopods put up a "smoke screen" to escape their prey. All Cephalopods are carnivorous, and they usually don't live very long at all. Cephalopods only live between one and three years. The is around 650 species of Cephalopodas.
http://www.eyeonthesea.co.nz/feature/octopus.html
http://www.earlham.edu/~merkeka/exciting_cephalopods.htm
http://www.australiancephalopods.com/