About Me

Hey I'm Hayden. I'm 14 and in 9th grade. I play Baseball, Basketball, and Football.
I love music, texting, and partying at other people's houses. I have an older brother Christian and sister
Brittany who are both in college and a cat and dog. My future dreams are to become a cop/story book

Blackout Syndrome Conclusion

The Blackout Syndrome is a mysterious disease that causes the eyes, nose, mouth, and hands to bleed profusely. It applies to the
Scientific Method by starting with giving you a problem. The problem is that there is a mysterious disease that needs curing fast.
To do this you investigate the victim's house to see what background info you can find. You create a hypothesis using the data you found ant the houses that the milk caused the disease. Next you test the hypothesis by running tests on the milk. After you test the hypothesis in an experiment, you analyze your data collected. Then, you come to a conclusion as to what the cause of the disease is, in this case the milk. Finally, you share your results.
I believe the most important part of the scientific method is the experiment. I think this because if you just had a hypothesis, you would not know if it is true or not, therefore you would need to test it using the experiment step to the scientific method. Also, you need a conclusion and a data collection. This would not be able to occur unless you tested your hypothesis. I did not know the steps of the scientific method before this assignment.

Sugar Maple

1. Name
2. scientific name
3. Organism that infects tree
4. Provides habitat for... (don't guess, research)
5. Justify classification of tree to related trees - create classification scheme as a class, identify related species
6. Commercial use of tree
7. Twig characteristics
8. Where tree is found in the world (native to pa?)
9. Draw or find a picture of a drawing of the leaf to show to the class.

1. Sugar Maple
2. Acer saccharum
3. Gypsy Moth
4. N/A
5. It is closely related to the Black Maple and The Bigtooth Maple
6. Furniture, musical instruments, flooring, and maple syrup
7. Reddish-brown to light brown with brown and sharp pointed buds
8. Pennsylvania
9. http://www.dcnr.state.pa.us/forestry/commontr/sugar.htm



The long, wild ride of bipolar disorder

Bruce Bower
hayden muth

A severe childhood mood disorder often lasts into young adulthoodChildren who grow up with the psychiatric ailment known as bipolar disorder rarely grow out of it. Almost half of youngsters who suffered from bipolar’s severe, rapid-fire mood swings at around age 11 displayed much of the same emotional volatility at ages 18 to 20, even if the condition had improved for a while during their teens, according to the first long-term study of children diagnosed with the disorder.
Bipolar disorder took off with a vengeance in these kids. Initial episodes, often periods of frequent, dramatic mood swings, lasted for up to three years. Second episodes lasted for slightly more than one year, while third episodes continued for roughly 10 months.
During these periods, youngsters can veer back and forth several times a day between a manic sense of euphoria and a serious, even suicidal depression, say psychiatrist Barbara Geller of Washington University in St. Louis and her colleagues. Manic euphoria typically includes grandiose delusions or hallucinations.
The study also suggests that a harsh set of symptoms that emerge by middle school and continue to at least the cusp of adulthood supports the classification of childhood bipolar disorder as a psychiatric ailment, the scientists conclude in the October Archives of General Psychiatry. Evidence of skyrocketing diagnoses of childhood bipolar disorder from 1994 to 2003 has fueled debate over whether the condition actually exists (SN: 9/8/07, p. 150).
“This is a landmark longitudinal study that provides the first strong evidence for continuity between childhood and late adolescent/early adulthood bipolar disorder,” remarks Columbia University psychiatrist Mark Olfson, who directed the investigation of rising numbers of children diagnosed with bipolar disorder.
Geller’s team tracked children who had initially experienced at least two weeks of manic elation or grandiosity. Many children get diagnosed with bipolar disorder after enduring only one week of mania, Olfson notes. “It is not clear whether the ominous outcomes reported here extend to the larger population of children who meet psychiatric criteria for mania,” he says. Diagnosis hinges on the presence of mania since depression by itself might not qualify as bipolar disorder.
Children in the new study also came from predominantly white, financially stable families. Researchers have yet to examine the long-term course of bipolar disorder in children from other ethnic and economic backgrounds.
Geller’s team monitored 108 children who were brought to psychiatric or pediatric clinics between 1995 and 1998 in the throes of their first episode of mania. Researchers diagnosed bipolar disorder after interviewing mothers, presumed primary caregivers, about their children and after interviewing the children. A majority of children also received diagnoses of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and one of several behavioral disturbances.
Youngsters received a variety of medications and psychological treatments from their local clinicians.
During eight years after the initial bipolar diagnosis, the researchers interviewed children and their mothers on nine occasions. By the study’s end, 54, or half, of the youngsters were older than 18 years, with an average age of 20.
Over the course of the eight-year follow-up, bipolar symptoms largely disappeared for at least two months in 101 of 108 children. But 74 of those who recovered then experienced new episodes of mania.
Adult relapses into mania occurred most frequently in children who had antagonistic or distant relationships with their mothers during the study. This pattern held after the scientists accounted for cases of bipolar disorder and other mental ailments in children’s families.
Of the 54 patients tracked to age 18 or older, 24 of them — or 44 percent — still, as adults, experienced manic episodes. That frequency is 13 to 44 times higher than estimates of mania’s prevalence in the general population of U.S. adults.
One-third of patients age 18 or older also abused alcohol and drugs. Geller’s group will present details on drug abuse among these individuals in a future publication.
During manic episodes, kids at all ages typically spent the vast majority of each day swinging back and forth between several hours of mania and periods of depression. In such cases, “a euphoric child can very quickly become seriously depressed and suicidal,” Geller says.
Geller’s findings feed into a growing awareness that serious mental illnesses such as bipolar disorder develop throughout childhood, even if critical neural and emotional changes aren’t obvious at first, comments psychiatrist Ellen Leibenluft of the National Institute of Mental Health in Bethesda, Md.

Scientists knew that bipolar disorder is usually found in kids around the age of 11. The studies were to find more about the disorder when it starts, the symptoms, and how long it lasts. This disorder should be researched because it can occur in children and cause serious problems such as suicide and social issues. The data was collected by following the scientific method in studying children diagnosed with the disorder. It is valid due to the people who studied it who were educated phyciatrists from Columbia University.
Basically, we can conlcude, from the data observed in the experiments, that bipolor disorder can occur in many age groups and can range from a serious issue to something that can be controlled with medicine.The information in this article is presented using facts and statistics. My opinion on this study is that it is an important issue in society due to the fact that a lot of people have it and it can not only cause problems to the patient but to people involved in that patients life or an everyday person determined by the intensity of the disorder. People should be aware of bipolor disorder because you could help someone who has it or get help if you seem to have the symptoms. Columbia University phyciatrists conducted this experiment to produce more information about bipolar disorder.
I have no further questions about bipolar disorder. It links to the scientific method by how the scientists conducted the experiment.

Characteristics of Life

Living things have the ability to grow on their own without the addition of other resources.
Living things can reproduce closely identical offspring through heredity.
Living things take in nourishment to generate energy.
Living things are mobile.
Living things can adapt to stimuli.
Living things have 5 senses.

What makes a living organism different from a nonliving organism?
Why are fungi alive?
Are viruses alive?

A living thing is something that can eat, breath, reproduce, and transport itself. Compared to my first assumption of life I still believe that living things must have cells to be classified as living but that is not a characteristic of life. Things that are difficult to classify as living are things such as hair which grows and dies.

Activity 2
What is in all of the beakers?- right: yeast and molasses; middle-molasses; left- yeast
What do the tubes do?- they carry gases from the beakers to the blue liquid

What is happening in flasks A(right), B(middle), C(left)? A- liquid is rising and bubbling; B- liquid is bubbling; C- liquid is clearing
How is the blue liquid changing?- it is getting lighter, degenerating
What is the blue liquid?- Bromothymol blue- indicators (acid)--- blue-base nuetral; yellow-acid; green-both base and acid

1. Why did the bromothymol blue change colors when a classmate exhaled into the test tube?-Carbon dioxide was added to the liquid.
2. What does the production of carbon dioxide gas indicate about yeast?- Yeast exchanges carbon dioxide gas for oxygen. It breathes.
3. How can you be sure that the carbon dioxide gas was produced by the yeast?- The bromothymal blue vials connected to the flasks that didn't contain yeast didn't change colors.
4. What does the presence of buds indicate about the yeast?- It shows that the cells are multiplying.
5. Why would buds be present in the yeast and molasses mixture?- The molasses and the yeast buds mix causing them to react by multiplying.
6. Summarize what you have observed about yeast to classify them as living organisms.- Yeast has cells that divide which causes it to grow.


1. What is photosynthesis?
Photosynthesis is the process of taking in sunlight to produce energy.

2. What types of organisms carry out photosynthesis? List 3 groups.
Green plants, bacteria, and algae carry out photosynthesis.

3. What is the chemical equation for photosynthesis? What is the translation for the chemical equation?
6CO2 +6H2O -> C6H12O6 +6O2
6 molecules water plus 6 molecules carbon dioxide yields one molecule glucose plus six molecules oxygen.

4. Look at your equation in number 3 and answer the following questions:
a. What are the raw materials or reactants needed to carry out photosynthesis?
Water and Carbon Dioxide are the reactants.

b. What are the products of photosynthesis?
Glucose and Oxygen are the products.

c. What energy source is needed in the reaction?
Sunlight is the energy source.

5. Consider a plant as the photosynthetic organism.
a. In what part of the plant does photosynthesis occur?
Photosynthesis occurs in the leaves..

b. What specific cells are involved?
The mesophyll cells are involved.

c. What specific organelle is involved?
The chloroplasts are involved.

6. How does the plant get the raw materials needed for photosynthesis to the
plant part where photosynthesis occurs?
Carbon dioxide is found in the air and water is supplied in numerous different ways from in the ground to

7. What is a stoma and of what value is the stoma to the plant in its efforts
to carry out photosynthesis?
It is a gel-like matrix that surrounds the thylakoid and it is where dark reactions occur.

8. Explore the organelle that is responsible for the process of photosynthesis.
What are found inside the organelle and how do these parts aid in the
process of photosynthesis?
The organelle responsible is the chloroplasts, which contain thylakoids that capture the light.

9. What is the first part of photosynthesis called and where does it occur?
Part 1 is called the light dependent reaction and it occurs on the outside of the leaf.

10. What exactly happens in the first part of photosynthesis?
The light is taken into the leaf and is pushed into ATP.

11. What is the second part of photosynthesis called and where does it happen?
The second part is the light independent reaction and it occurs in the cells of the leaf.

12. What happens in the second part of photosynthesis?
In the second part the ATP makes glucose.

13. Are the two parts of photosynthesis connected? If so, explain the
Yes they are connected because they both require the chemical ATP.

14. Does the chemical equation that you listed in number 3 tell the entire story
of the process of photosynthesis? Why or why not?
It does not tell the whole story because it does not tell you how the production is performed. It simply gives the requirements and the products, not the process.

DNA Replication


Vocab Terms:
telomeres- long stretches at the end of the chromosome
okazaki fragments- beginning fragments of DNA
dna ligase- connects okasaki fragments, making DNA
telomerase- enzymes that add telemere repeat sequences to the 3' end of the DNA strand
cancer- arise from somatic cells
transplanted cells- take cells from patient, change genes, put back in patient
cloning- nucleus taken from adult and copied
aging- after numerous mitosis, cells shrink to possible bring an end to cells

Cell Portfolio


Ecology Issues