About Me!

My name is Alex, I'm 15, and in 9th grade. I like sports, I play football, basketball, track, and golf. I listen to music a lot, I have a wide variety of what I like. I watch too many movies, and am on the computer a lot. I go to church at SSCD in Punxsy. That's just a little bit about me.

Blackout Syndrome Conclusion

The blackout syndrome mystery followed the scientific method. It started out as identifying the problem, which was everybody becoming infected with this bloody disease. Second, they researched, we went into the first two victims houses and looked for similar clues to what could have caused this outbreak. Third, we hypothesized; based on the similarities in the two houses we guessed which one would be the cause of the disease. Fourth, we went to the lab and tested our hypothesis. We used an infected test group and a non-infected group; we then compared the two groups after the tests to see the differences. We then analyzed what the tests showed and concluded that the correct antibiotic for the disease was Amikacin.
The most important step in the scientific method, I think, is testing your hypothesis. I think this because without testing, you would never be able to unravel the problem. It would still be a mystery if you never tested it.
Two things I learned and never knew before this assignment were that the scientific method was used to solve very important things like cures for diseases. I also found that the scientific method could be used to solve very small problems too.

Scots Pine

Name Scots Pine

Scientific Name Pinus sylvestris

Organism That Infects Tree Endophytic Fungi and Pathogenic fungus

Provides Habitat For insects, small mammals, and birds

Related Trees Pinus sylvestris var. sylvestris, Pinus sylvestris var. hamata, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, Pinus sylvestris var. nevadensis

Commercial Use Of Tree Used for tar in the pre-industrial age, used as Christmas Trees,

Twig Characteristics Fairly stout, brittle, dark yellowish-gray, smooth

Where Tree Is Found In The World? Asia and Europe and the United States



Characteristics of Life


Oak trees


Hand sanitizer
Door handles
Comic book characters
Hockey sticks

A living thing is something that carries out the numerous characteristics that we discussed about. What I first thought was they had to eat, breathe, and be made up of cells. I found that there are many other characteristics too, such as they have the ability to reproduce, have a response to a stimuli, can adapt to their environment, can excrete waste, and many other characteristics. Being made up of cells is not a characteristic though. Cells are organisms themselves, so they cannot be a characteristic too. This is my reflection on activity one.


Photo #1

  • What is in the beakers?
  • What Chemicals are being used?
  • What is happening between the beakers?
  • What is going to happen?

Photo #2
  • Left- Yeast and Water, Middle- Molasses and Water, Right- Molasses, Yeast and Water
  • Water, yeast, and molasses
  • Carbon dioxide is being transferred from the yeast filled bottle and into the bromothymol blue filled tube.
  • The blue color in the test tubes are changing to a clear color.
1. Why did the bromothymol blue change colors when a classmate exhaled into the test tube?
It changed colors because he exhaled carbon dioxide and it caused a chemical reaction which changed the bromothymol blue's color.

2. What does the production of carbon dioxide gas indicate about yeast?
It indicates that it is a living organism because they take in the oxygen that's present and release the carbon dioxide. This is a process that all living things do which means that it is living.

3. How can you be sure that the carbon dioxide gas was produced by the yeast?
I can be sure it was because the other tubes that did not change the Bromothymol Blue's color, this showed that the other tubes, the ones that didn't contain the yeast, did not change the color. This is because the other groups did not produce the carbon dioxide to change the color.

4. What does the presence of buds indicate about the yeast?
It indicates that the buds are reproducing by splitting apart.

5. Why would more buds be present in the yeast and molasses mixture?
There would be more present in it because with the molasses there would be more nutrition for the yeast to feed off of and be able to produce more buds.

6. Summarize what you have observed about yeast to classify them as living organisms.
Yeast is a living organism because it takes in nutrients to survive, it also exhales carbon dioxide which was shown when it changed the mixture color.

Additional Questions
1. How does yeast make dough rise?
It makes dough rise because the carbon dioxide that the yeast gives off causes the bread mixture to bubble up and rise.

2. A recipe instructs you to add yeast to warm water not hot. Why?
It instructs that because the warm water will activate the yeast, while water that's too hot will kill the yeast cells.

3. Why does a recipe instruct the cook to let the yeast and water stand for 5 minutes or until bubbly?
The recipe instructs that because if you cook it too fast before it's bubbly, then the yeast may not react to the water in time and the bread or whatever you're cooking will not rise as intended.

Phyla/Class Intro

1. Why does the squid have a different phylum from the other organisms that is what with?

2. Why are the other organisms worms and the squid isn’t?

• List of Organisms
o Dog tapeworm – (Platyhelminthes)_Cestoda
o Flatworm – (Platyhelminthes)_Monogenea, Trematoda, Cestoda, or Turbellaria
o Squid – (Mollusca)_Cephalopoda
o Liver fluke – (Platyhelminthes)_Trematoda
o Bladderworm – (Platyhelminthes)_Monogenea, Trematoda, Cestoda, or Turbellaria
o Tapeworm – (Platyhelminthes)_Cestoda

*Phylum in ( )
*Class is after the _

• Similarities
o They are all invertebrates.

• Characteristics about the squid:
o It has a very clear head
o 8 arms
o 2 tentacles that are in pairs
o Bilateral symmetry

• Similarities of Dog tapeworm, flatworm, liver fluke, bladderworm, and tapeworm:
o Parasites
o Invertebrates

• Differences:
o Tapeworm lives in a digestive track of invertebrates.
o Flatworms are found in freshwater.
• Extremely tiny
o Dog tapeworm lives in a dog’s digestive system.
o Bladderworm lives inside an intermediate host.
• Very tiny and in a circular shape
o Liver Fluke infects the liver in mammals.
• It is very flat

-The Dog tapeworm, flatworm, liver fluke, bladderworm, and tapeworm are all under the phylum of Platyhelminthes.

-The squid is in its own class named Cephalopoda.

Photosynthesis Webquest

1. What is photosynthesis?
Photosynthesis is the process the autotrophs carry out that converts electromagnetic radiation into energy that can be used by all living organisms.

2. What types of organisms carry out photosynthesis? List 3 groups.
Three groups that can carry out photosynthesis are green plants, algae, and certain kinds of baceria.

3. What is the chemical equation for photosynthesis? What is the translation for the chemical equation?
6 CO2 + 6 H20 = C6H12O6 + 6 O2
This translates to six carbon dioxide molecules plus six water molecules equals one glucose molecule and six oxygen molecules.

4. Look at your equation in number 3 and answer the following questions:
a. What are the raw materials or reactants needed to carry out photosynthesis?
Six carbon dioxide and six water molecules are the raw materials.

b. What are the products of photosynthesis?
Glucose and oxygen are the products.

c. What energy source is needed in the reaction?
Sunlight is the energy source needed.

5. Consider a plant as the photosynthetic organism.
a. In what part of the plant does photosynthesis occur?
It occurs in the leaf of the plant.

b. What specific cells are involved?
Pigment cells are the specific cells that are involved.

c. What specific organelle is involved?
The chloroplast is the specific organelle involved.

6. How does the plant get the raw materials needed for photosynthesis to the
plant part where photosynthesis occurs?

The xylem cells transports the H2O and the phloem tube transports sugar, the chloroplasts and chlorophyll absorbs sunlight and the stoma is where the carbon dioxide is taken into the leaf and the oxygen let out of the leaf situated on the underside of the leaf.

7. What is a stoma and of what value is the stoma to the plant in its efforts
to carry out photosynthesis?

Stoma is a gel-like matrix that surrounds and keeps the thylakioids in place which creates granum sections.

8. Explore the organelle that is responsible for the process of photosynthesis.
What are found inside the organelle and how do these parts aid in the
process of photosynthesis?

The organelle is the chloroplast and inside of it are the thykaloids where the light reaction takes place.

9. What is the first part of photosynthesis called and where does it occur?
It’s called the light reaction, or the light-dependent reaction and it occurs in the thykaloids

10. What exactly happens in the first part of photosynthesis?
Light strikes the chlorophyll making the electrons have a higher energy state. Then the energy is converted into ATP and NADPH, then water is split which create oxygen.

11. What is the second part of photosynthesis called and where does it happen?
The second part is called the Calvin Cycle and it occurs in the stroma.

12. What happens in the second part of photosynthesis?
The carbon dioxide is captured with hydrogen and made into carbohydrates. This is called carbon fixation.

13. Are the two parts of photosynthesis connected? If so, explain the

Yes, the energy produced in the first part of photosynthesis is used to power the calvin cycle in the second part.

14. Does the chemical equation that you listed in number 3 tell the entire story
of the process of photosynthesis? Why or why not?

No, because it doesn’t tell about how ATP and NADPH is transferred and doesn’t show how the energy is captured from the sun. It just tells what you start with and end with.

Light Intensity Lab


DNA Replication Project

*Yellow- Telomeres
*Blue- Adenine
*Orange- Thymine
*Purple- Guanine
*Red- Cytosine

Picture 1
The beginning necessities of DNA replication. All the bases match up with one another.

Picture 2
The DNA bases begin to split. The A's are no longer connected to the T's and the C's are no longer with the G's. The telomeres also begin to unwind so that they are straight and not twisted.

Picture 3
Another set of split DNA comes along and matches up with the DNA that is splitting here. By the end of the process the telomeres will be completely unwound and all of the DNA bases will be matched up with its partner from another DNA molecule.

telomeres- The part of the DNA molecule that keeps the chromosomes in from getting in the wrong spot and lines them up correctly.
okazaki fragments- A strand that's synthesized when the replication fork opens up and DNA polymerase is exposed to it.
DNA ligase- A part that stitches the okazaki fragments together.
telomerase- the enzyme that adds the 3' to the end of the strands of DNA.
cancer- When somatic cells begin to duplicate themselves indefinitely causing an overload of cells.
transplanted cells- Transplanting cells is the process of removing cells from a patients body and reprogramming them to synthesize the product that they weren't able to do before.
cloning- The process of taking the cell chromosomes from one organism and making another organism that is an exact copy with the exact same characteristics.
aging- Telomeres begin to shrink over time, as they shrink the body begins to age and over time is more and more deprived of the products of cellular mitosis. That is why people's body's begin to shut down when they get old.

Cell Portfolio

Photo Sources
Google images search: Cell splitting, balding cancer, body parts, smoking

Statistic Source

Ecology Issue