Cells

Types of Cells

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The prokaryote cell does not contain a nucleus. Many are unicellular with the exception of myxobacteria which is multicellular.

Eukaryote

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The eukaryote is the second basic type of cell, it the cell that makes up animals, plants, and fungi. The main difference between the two types of cells is that the eukaryote cell has a nucleus.
Prokaryote cell
bacteria
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Bacteria range in shape from spirals to spheres and rods. They can be found on every habitat. Bacteria are prokaryotes because they are unicellular.

Eukaryote
Nostoc
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Nostoc form spherical colonies which are mostly never seen on the ground until it rains. Then the colony grows larger. Nostoc is a eukaryote cell because it is either unicellular or multicellular

Compare and Contrast
There are many similarities and differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. A prokaryote is usually simpler and smaller while a eukaryote is more complex and also larger. Unlike a eukaryote, a prokaryote does not contain a nucleus with its genetic material. Both of the cells can contain internal membranes. However, eukaryote cells always have internal membranes while only a few prokaryote cells have internal membranes.

Questions
Tessa
Are there more than two basic types of cells? The answer is no. There are only two types of basic cells in the world which are prokaryote and eukaryote.
sources:
http://staff.jccc.net/pdecell/cells/basiccell.html
http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/plantcell.html
Dane
What is the main difference between the nucleoid of the prokaryote and the nucleus of the eukaryote? The nucleus' main point is to control the activities of the cell by regulating gene production, While the nucleoid just stores genetic material.
Sources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nucleoid
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_nucleus

Animal and Plant Cells

Onion cell


dane_onion_no_salt.png jones_daen.png
1. Prepare a wet mount slide of a small piece of onion skin. Add 1-2 drops of methylene blue or Lugol's iodine to the slide, then apply a coverslip.
2. Observe the cells and identify at least 3-4 cell structures.
3. Take a photo of the onion cell with the motic cam. Measure an average cell with the motic cam. Add a title, 3 labels, and a descriptive caption.
4. Add concentrated salt solution to the slide and observe changes. Take another photo with the motic cam and label at least 3 parts to show changes.
Add a title and a descriptive caption to describe changes.

Questions:
1. Describe the shape and arrangement of the onion cells.(2)
They are sort of rectangular and are closely packed together.

2. What happened to the cells when concentrated salt solution was added to the cells? (1) Why do you think this happened?(1)
The membrane pulled away to try not to get dehydrated. leaving the rest to be centered. This occured because the membrane is the only part alive.

3. What was the purpose of adding the methylene blue or Lugol's iodine to the slide?(1)
The purpose to adding the methylene blue or iodine was to get a better view of the cell.

4. What question do you have about this activity that has not yet been answered?(1) Do research to answer the question or design and perform an experiment to answer the question.(2) Remember to cite your sources.
Why does salt effect the cell? Salt effects cells because it is an acidic substance.
http://sg.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20071128194017AAQVOKP
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_does_a_high_consentration_of_salt_affect_cells

5. Explain what happens when salt water is added to an onion cell. You must use these words in your explanation: osmosis, diffusion, hypertonic, and hypotonic.
The addition of salt to the onion cell made the cell lose water. By losing water, the cell membrane pulls away from the cell wall. This diffusion of water in a higher concentration/hypotonic to a lower concentration is call osmosis.

Elodea Cell

1. Prepare a wet mount slide of an elodea leaf. Remember to apply a cover slip. Move the slide around until you observe the elodea cells clearly. (Hint: Sometimes along the edge of the leaf the cells are more visible).
2. Observe and identify 2-3 structures.
3. Take a photo of an elodea cell with the motic cam. Measure an average cell with the motic cam. (Remember to measure the length, not the width).
Add at least 2 labels to the elodea cell.
Elodea Cell without salt.
[[image:elodea_w:out-tt.png]]
This picture displays the elodea cell without salt cell membrane, cytoplasm and the cell wall.
4. Add concentrated salt solution to the slide and observe changes. Take another photo with the motic cam and label at least three structures to demonstrate changes that occurred.
Elodea Cell containing salt
original picture by Nicki and Shaina
[[image:leaf_w:salt.png]]
This is a picture of an elodea cell containing salt. It displays the cell wall, cytoplasm and the nucleus.
Questions:
1. Compare and contrast the onion cell and the elodea cell.(2)
They both have the same shape but they are differently colored. Onion cells don't have choroplasm but eldea cells do.
2. Did the elodea and the onion cells react similarly to the addition of salt water? Explain.(2)

3. What question do you still have about elodea or this lab activity?(1) Do research or design and perform an experiment to answer the question.(2)
Cite your sources.
Are all cells affected in the same way by salt like the onion and elodea cell? Yes all cells are affected in the same way.


Cheek Cell Lab

1. Obtain a flat toothpick and carefully scrape the inside of your cheeks. Add 1-2 drops of water to a slide, then add the cheek cells to the water by swirling the toothpick in the water. Add a drop of Lugol's iodine to the cell suspension. Carefully add a coverslip.
2. Observe the cells to identify 3-4 structures.
3. Take a photo of the cheek cell with the motic cam. Measure an average sized cell with the motic cam. Label at least 3 structures.
4. Finish by adding a title above your photo and a descriptive caption consisting of 1-2 sentences below the photo.
Cheek Cell
original picture by Nicki and Shaina
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This picture shows the nucleus, cell membrane, and the cytoplasm of a cell from the human cheek.

1. Describe the shape and arrangement of the cheek cells.(2)
They have a variety of shaped cells. and they are sorta clustered.
2. Compare and contrast the cheek, onion, and elodea cells.(6)
All different colors, cheek cells are the only ones without a diffined pattern of shaped.
3. What question do you still have about this activity?(1) Do research to find the answer or design and perform an experiment to answer your question.(2)
Cite your research sources.
Why are the onion cell and the cheek cell different? The onion cell is different because it has a cell wall unlike the cheek cell.
Biology book

Cell Inquiry


Celery cell
This picture shows the cell wall and cytoplasm of a celery cell.
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Banana cell
This picture shows the cell wall, nucleus and the cytoplasm of a banana cell.
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Determination
To answer the question if fruits and vegetables are made of cells, we took a piece of celery (vegetable) and a banana (fruit) and looked at it under the microscope and were able to identify parts of a cell. Fruits and vegetables are made of cells. In our past labs we learned how different cells appear and we learned the placement of cell parts such as the cell wall cell membrane cytoplasm and the nucleus. In these two pictures above of the celery and banana, one of the previously mentioned cell parts is shown. Identifying these cell parts is the conclusion that fruits and vegetables are made of cells.

Cell Size

(worked with title)
chart
Cube Size
Area of cube
Volume of cube
Surface area to volume ration
Distance of diffusion
Rate of diffusion
3cm x 3cm x 3cm
54sq cm
27cubic cm
2 to 1
5mm
.5mm/min
2cm x 2cm x 2cm
24sq cm
8 cubic cm
3 to 1
5mm
.5mm/min
1cm x 1cm x 1cm
6sq cm
1 cubic cm
6 to 1
5mm
.5mm/min
To find the surface area to volume ratio:
3cm-54/27=2 to 1
2cm-24/8=3 to 1
1cm-6/=6 to 1
Then to get the rate of diffusion I:
divided 5mm by 10min. to all of them


1cm x 1cm x 1cm cell size (smallest) cut in halt
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2cm x 2cm x 2cm cell size (medium) cut in halt
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3cm x 3cm x 3cm size cell (largest) cut in half
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All three sizes of cells cut in half
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Analysis:
1. Compare and contrast the three cubes after they were sliced in half.
Each cube had a distance of diffusion of 5mm. With this distance, the smallest cube (1cmx1cmx1cm) was completely covered through and through. The medium size (2cmx2cmx2cm) and the large size (3cmx3cmx3cm) were not covered the entire way to the middle.
2. Which "cell" seemed to be most and least efficient at getting outside substances into the cell? Explain.
The cell that seemed to be the least efficient at transporting substances was the 3x3x3 cube. Because the size gets in the way of the reaction to the substance.
The cell that had the most efficient reaction was the smallest one because it had the color the entire way through and it had a smaller distance to travel.
3. Which of your calculations seems to explain what you observed in your cell models? Why do you think so?
I think the surface to volume ratio explains the best. The 2 to 1 ratio means that for the one thing in the middle of the cell there are two things on the outside of the cell helping it. The 3 to 1 means there are three things on the outside helping the one and the 6 to 1 means there are 6 helping the one in the middle. By knowing this information, you can give an approximate guess of which cell will be filled first.
4. Speculate on a relationship between cell size and efficiency. Your statement should resemble a hypothesis.
The relation ship between the cell size and efficiency is that the smaller the cell the more efficient the it will absorb the substance outside with will make it faster to to reach the center of the cell.

Cell Transport

In order for cells to survive, they need to get substances in and out of the cell. In the following activities, you will learn about three processes that move materials in and out of the cell. Two of the processes are considered to be passive and are known as osmosis and diffusion. You will also learn about another process that allows substances to enter or leave the cell known as active transport.

Osmosis and Diffusion
To learn about the cell transport processes of osmosis and diffusion, click here. Complete the activities in the table of contents following the sequence listed. Concepts 1 thru 8 need to be completed for basic understanding of passive cell transport. Take notes as you study the concepts.
1. Make a glossary of terms with definitions. Include the following terms in your glossary:
  • diffusion- a blending of ions, molecules, etc. as a dispersion of vapor; also can be called migration
  • osmosis- the diffusion of liquids through membranes
  • hypotonic- a solution that has a lower osmotic pressure
  • hypertonic- a solution that has a higher osmotic pressure
  • isotonic- something composed of the same salt concentration as mammalian blood
  • solute- a substance blended into another substance
  • solvent- a substance that blends another to make a solution
  • selectively permeable- barrier that permits some chemicals pass but not others; the cell membrane is a barrier like this
  • water potential- the promising energy of water comparative to pure free water in reference surroundings
  • concentration gradient- a change in the absorption of solutes in a solution as a capacity of distance through a solution
  • plasmolysis- the plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall due to the loss of water
  • turgor- pressure of cell contents against the cell wall
  • active transport- pumping of molecule
  • facilitated diffusion- an advanced process of diffusion
2. Design of the Experiment - You may chose to do exercises 1,2 and 3 or choose from the following listed as A B, and C. Every team will need to chose exercise 1 or A, then any other two inquiries from the list.
A. In this exercise you will make a model "cell" from dialysis tubing. Your cell will be filled with starch and water suspension, then placed in a solution of iodine for at least 10 minutes.
B. In this exercise your will make a model "cell" and fill it with tap water. Next, you will determine the mass of the cell. Place the "cell" in concentrated salt solution for at least 50-60 minutes. Remove the "cell" and check the mass.
C. In this exercise, you will start with 2 equal sized potato slices. Place one in tap water and the other in salt water. After at least 30 minutes, remove the cells and check for flexibility and turgor.
4. Analysis of the Activities:
a. Which activity gave you the best understanding of osmosis? Take a photo from that activity to illustrate osmosis. Add at least 2-3 appropriate labels to prove that you understand the process. Write a paragraph at least 3 sentences long to prove that you understand osmosis.
The "cell" with tap water
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For me, the tap water and salt solution best describes osmosis. In this experiment we made a "cell" and filled it with tap water. We then calculated the mass then placed it in concentrated salt solution. After waiting an appropriate amount of time, we took the "cell" out of the salt and then calculated its mass again. This time it was smaller. It became small because all of the salt on the outside rushed to the water on the inside which is hypertonic.
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b. Which activity gave you the best understanding of diffusion? Include a photo from that activity to illustrate diffusion. Add at least 2-3 appropriate labels to prove that you understand the process. Write a paragraph at least 3 sentences long to prove that you understand diffusion.
5. Active Transport - Another way to get needed materials in or out of cells is known as active transport. To learn about active transport, click here. You should study concepts 4 and 5. Fill free to review concepts 1 thru 3. Take notes as you study concepts 4 and 5.
Questions;
1. Compare and contrast diffusion and osmosis. You are responsible for discussing at least 3 similarities and or differences.
Diffusion is the blending of ions, molecules, etc as a dispersion of vapor. With diffusion, half of the molecules will go to the other side and visa versa. Osmosis is a type of diffusion of liquids through membranes. Just as diffusion has different types, there are also different types of osmosis like hypertonic and hypotonic. Another similarity is because osmosis is a type of diffusion it does blend molecules just as diffusion.
2. Why are diffusion and osmosis considered to be passive processes?
They are passive processes because both are a type of diffusion that moves across the membrane of a cell.
3. Compare and contrast passive cell transport with active cell transport. You are responsible for discussing at least 3 similarities and/or differences.
Obviously both transports use movement. Passive transport, however, goes from a high concentration to a low concentration which requires no energy. Active transport goes from a low concentration to a high concentration requiring energy in the form of ATP. Active transport also has a pump to move things in and out of the cell.
4. What question do you still have about cell transport? Do research or design and run an experiment to gather data to answer your question. Write a paragraph or make an outline of what you did and what you discovered. Remember to cite your sources.

Homework: In paragraphs, discuss the processes of osmosis and diffusion and provide specific examples from the lab investigation to support your discussion. What best demonstrated the concept to you? Use the part of the lab that best explains the process.

Catalase activity

Perform the following test on the two food substances you were given at the start of lab. General procedure for testing for catalase:
  • Place the material being tested into a clean test tube.(Use one-half of a dropper of the food.)
  • Add 1 dropperful of room temperature hydrogen peroxide to the test tube
  • Watch for a reaction. Use a scale of 1-5 to rate the reaction. 1 is very little or no reaction and 5 is a large reaction.
  • Perform the same experiment with the same food using cold hydrogen peroxide.
  • Perform the experiment again with the same food using warm hydrogen peroxide.
  • Use the following google form to enter your results. Choose your information carefully before submitting as we cannot take away mistaken data.
Milk
The milk didn't have many reactions to the hydrogen peroxide. On a scale of reaction from one to ten, the tube at warm temperature had a number 2, the tube with cold had a number 3, and the tube with heat had a 1 meaning no reaction.
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Identify the types of biomolecules

(carbohydrates, proteins, lipids) in the same food substances tested in the catalase activity above. Follow the directions given in order to determine what biomolecules are in each of the foods.

Purpose:
The compounds your body needs for energy and building materials are carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals. These compounds are present in the plants and animals you use as food. You will observe the tests for specific compounds and then use those tests to determine the compounds in ordinary foods.

Procedure:

Testing for Carbohydrates
There exists two simple laboratory tests for the two main types of carbohydrates: Simple sugars (monosaccharides and disaccharides) and starches (polysaccharides).

1. Simple sugars are tested with Benedicts’s Test:
Place 1 dropper full of the food solution to be tested and add 1 dropper full of Benedict’s solution. Heat the tube gently in a water bath for 3 minutes. If simple sugar is present, there will be a color change from blue through green to yellow/orange/red. Actually, an orange precipitate is formed.
Milk
This tube contains milk with Benedict. The orange coloring indicates that sugar is present in milk.
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2. Starches are tested with the Iodine test:
Add 3-5 drops of Iodine to a dropper full of the substance. Do not heat. A color change from orange/brown to blue/black shows the presence of starch.
Milk
This picture displays milk with idodine. It is not actually shown through in the picture but it did have a blue tint. Therefore starches are present in milk.
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Testing for Proteins – Biuret Test
Add 1 dropper full of Biuret solution to 1 dropper full of the substance. Do not heat. Results may not be immediate and could take 5 minutes. If there is protein, there will be a color change from blue to mauve.
Milk
This picture shows milk with Biuret. Since its coloring changed to a purple, protein is present in milk.
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Testing for Fats and Oils – Sudan IV test
Add 5 drops of Sudan IV stain to one half dropper of the food substance. Do not heat or shake! Look for a deep red color at the interface of the food substance with the dye. You may need to hold the tube over a piece of white paper.
Milk
This picture displays milk with Sudan IV. The substance was to change to a red to show the presence of fats and oils but the coloring is only a pink. I thought that there would be fats and oils in milk but the milk used had been diluted slightly so that could be the cause of the pink coloring.
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Sources:

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/99/Prokaryote_cell_diagram.svg/800px-Prokaryote_cell_diagram.svg.png
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prokaryote
Biology book in classroom
http://dictionary.reference.com/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_potential
http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Concentration_Gradient


Excel graph for milk and Bean
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